Many beneficiaries have questions about late enrollment penalties and Medicare Income-Related Monthly Adjustment Amounts (IRMAA), and this section will help people with Medicare avoid penalties wherever possible. You will learn that penalties are incurred if individuals do not enroll in Medicare Parts A, B, and/or D when they are first eligible to do so, and we will explore how these penalties may be eliminated. The section reviews all key IRMAA considerations: what IRMAA is, when it must be paid and who is likely to pay it, and how to appeal or request a new initial determination if there is disagreement with Social Security’s IRMAA decision.

Learning Objectives

After taking this section, you will be able to:

  • Explain Medicare late enrollment penalties
  • Identify situations when a beneficiary would incur a late enrollment penalty
  • Understand how beneficiaries can avoid and eliminate late enrollment penalties
  • Talk about Income-Related Monthly Adjustment Amounts, or IRMAA


  • Interactive activities and knowledge quizzes
  • Review tests at the end of every section – 80% or higher mark to pass the section and download a certificate of completion
  • Educational content vetted by a team of national experts at Medicare Rights Center
  • Closed captioning
  • An array of printable supplementary tools and fliers